• ## One Way Slab Quantity and Two Way Slab Quantity Spreadsheet

Slabs are classified into two types: One Way Slab and Two Way Slab.

One way slab is a slab which is supported by beams on the two opposite sides to carry the load along one direction.

Two way slab is a slab supported by beams on all the four sides and the loads are carried by the supports along both directions, it is known as two way slab. In two way slab, the ratio of longer span (l) to shorter span (b) is less than 2.

### Difference between OneWay Slab and Two-way slab:

 One Way Slab Two Way Slab Slabs are supported by the beams on the two opposite sides Slabs are supported by beams on all the four sides. Main Reinforcement is provided in only direction for one way slabs Main Reinforcement is provided along both the directions in two way slabs. Loads are carried along one direction in one way slab. Loads are carried along both the directions in two way slabs.

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• ## Basic Requirements for a Building

The planning and construction of a building should be aimed at fulfilling the following requirements:

1. STRENGTH

A wall should be strong enough to take up the loads safely due to its own weight, super imposed loads and lateral pressure such as wind.

2. STABILITY

It should be stable against overturning by lateral forces (due to wind load) and buckling caused by excessive slenderness.

3. WEATHER RESISTANCE

All the external walls, whether of load bearing or panel construction, should provide adequate resistance to rain, sun and wind penetration.

4. FIRE RESISTANCE

The walls should offer sufficient resistance to fire, as they behave as vertical barriers for spread of fire in the horizontal direction. So the walls should be made of such a material which neither ignite nor allow the spread of the fire through them.

5. HEAT INSULATION

It should be possible for walls to attain insulation against heat. For this, the walls are made either thicker, or cavity wall construction is employed. Heat insulating materials are also used in construction of walls.

6. SOUND INSULATION

The walls, both load bearing and non-load bearing, should be made of such materials and by such techniques, viz., cavity wall construction, so as to insulate building against indoor and outdoor noises.

7. PRIVACY & SECURITY

The walls, particularly external walls, should also provide sufficient privacy and afford security against burglary.

In the design and construction of walls, a balance between two primary considerations, namely strength and insulation against elements (such as heat, fire & weather), should be exercised.

Generally hollow concrete blocks or perforated bricks are used now days for construction of building walls, as it satisfies most of the requirements.

• ## Different Types of Concrete Mix

Concrete is made up of cement, aggregate (particles of stone) and sharp sand. When you mix these ingredients with water, they bind into a solid, hard material. In different proportions, they produce concrete of different strengths for different uses.

It’s important to get the proportions right. If there’s too much aggregate, you’ll struggle to get a satisfactory finish. And too much sand will make the mix weak, so that the finished surface could be damaged by the elements.

Concrete begins to harden after about two hours and then becomes unworkable. But it doesn’t become really strong for several days, and continues to harden as long as there’s some moisture in it. Let’s take a look at below different types of concrete mix.

### 1. Nominal Mixes

In the past the specifications for concrete prescribed the proportions of cement, ?ne and coarse aggregates. These mixes of fixed cement-aggregate ratio which ensures adequate strength are termed nominal mixes. These offer simplicity and under normal circumstances, have a margin of strength above that specified. However, due to the variability of mix ingredients the nominal concrete for a given workability varies widely in strength.

### 2. Standard mixes

The nominal mixes of fixed cement-aggregate ratio (by volume) vary widely in strength and may result in under- or over-rich mixes. For this reason, the minimum compressive strength has been included in many speci?cations. These mixes are termed standard mixes.

IS 456-2000 has designated the concrete mixes into a number of grades as M10, M15, M20, M25,M30, M35 and M40. In this designation the letter M refers to the mix and the number to the speci?ed 28 day cube strength of mix in N/mm2. The mixes of grades M10, M15, M20 and M25 correspond approximately to the mix proportions (1:3:6), (1:2:4), (1:1.5:3) and (1:1:2) respectively.

### 3. Designed Mixes

In these mixes the performance of the concrete is speci?ed by the designer but the mix proportions are determined by the producer of concrete, except that the minimum cement content can be laid down. This is most rational approach to the selection of mix proportions with specified materials in mind possessing more or less unique characteristics. The approach results in the production of concrete with the appropriate properties most economically. However, the designed mix does not serve as a guide since this does not guarantee the correct
mix proportions for the prescribed performance.

For the concrete with undemanding performance nominal or standard mixes (prescribed in the codes by quantities of dry ingredients per cubic meter and by slump) may be used only for very small jobs, when the 28-day strength of concrete does not exceed 30 N/mm2. No control testing is necessary reliance being placed on the masses of the ingredients.

• ## Circular Column Design

Circular reinforced columns have higher strength than square or rectangular columns. Circular cross-section columns are more resistant to buckling as compared to a rectangular cross-section. Furthermore, circular sections will have uniform torsion characteristics.

circular column design spreadsheet example

The difference between the strength of two different types of columns: Columns having shear reinforcement in form of spirals gives better confinement than shear reinforcement in form of ties.

Circular Column Design Spreadsheet  Download

They are columns in which the longitudinal bars are arranged in a circle surrounded by a closely spaced continuous spiral. These columns are usually circular or square in shape. A minimum of six bars is used for longitudinal reinforcement.

Circular Concrete Columns Design PDF  Download

• in

## Car Autocad 2D Blocks Free Download for your Next Project

A collection of AutoCAD 2d blocks free download car in plan and elevation view.

### Download

You can use these car 2d blocks for residential building projects plan and house plans.

• ## 5 Web-Based Project Management Software Tools

There are effective project management software tools you can use to streamline your operations and boost your productivity. If you are a small business, you may want to look for a project management solution that has collaboration features, task management, project scheduling, and document-sharing.

### Some quick reminders before you purchase a project management solution.

Look for one that supports a mobile application. Look for a software solution that can support mobile applications if your project team members or leaders who will be using this project management solution would spend a lot of time outside the office. Mobility equals agility, so ensure that when you buy a project management software solution, it can support mobile applications.

Get one that supports social activity streams. Many solutions today incorporate social activity streams into their features, enabling your staff to report on and discuss information on the project or task status.

Check for integration options. There are solutions that can be integrated well with their pre-existing business systems. For instance, integrating the project management software with your company

Check if existing accounting system will allow you to send expense reports and important financial data to make billing, financial management, and project invoicing more fluid.

How secure is the program? Handing over sensitive data to such a project management software tool may be an issue. So when searching for a project management tool, consider its security features.

Here are five top project management solutions and the features they offer in their trial (if available) and paid versions.

### Resource Guru

Resource Guru is a web project management app with a good scheduling tool created to keep you and your company on track of your business, meet deadlines, and keep up with the pace of your work. A cloud-based team calendar, this tool helps you remove scheduling problems and promote delegation and appropriation of people, equipment, and resources.

### LeanKit

LeanKit is a flexible project management solution that provides a real-time and shared understanding of work activity and status, making the solution perfect for managing both project as well as process work.

The intuitive software gives a single and consolidated view of your work that teams can quickly access and interact with across various locations, devices, and systems using virtual Kanban boards.

### Workfront

Workfront is a cloud-based enterprise work management solution, allowing members across teams to work, collaborate, and report in one place in real time. It intelligently combines social media techniques with traditional project management capabilities to fully engage team members in high priority productive activities, while providing management teams with the information and visibility they need to optimize their resources.

### ProWorkflow

Lessen your workload by managing projects online. ProWorkFlow focuses on visibility and control to help you collaborate seamlessly with your teams. Its features and tools are scalable to match the needs of freelancers, small, medium, and large enterprises.

### Communifire

Communifire streamlines your communication and work processes and integrates them in a social business platform to enhance collaboration and content management in your organization. It is ideal for business of all shapes and sizes that operate in a wide array of content and with various teams to ensure all their work are achieve on time and aligned with company goals.

• ## Expert Advice on How to Save Money During Negotiations with Suppliers

Smart negotiations with your suppliers and vendors will lead you to generate thousands of dollars in savings throughout the year. We have asked procurement experts and successful builders about some of the best helpful tips and ideas they have used, and here is a very important list. Some of these ideas can be used when purchasing, acquiring or leasing material and equipment from suppliers and vendors for your construction project.

### #1: Use Early Pay Discounts

If you have the opportunity to get savings for early payments, use it.

Normally, your supplier or vendor will try to get early payments discounts from you if the invoice is paid earlier than the usually 30-day period. How much interest could you earn in a year if you received, say, a 3 percent early pay discount on materials every time you paid a bill 15 day from the date of invoice instead of 30? The answer is 72 percent annualized income!

### #2 Higher Early-Pay Discounts

When negotiating a big supply for a project or several projects, you can get your supplier to offer you higher discount rates for early payments on large orders. By doing this you will need to pay faster so be sure to account that during your cash flow projections. Reduce the term payment by 5 to 10 days and you can be saving up to 10% of the total purchase.

### #3: Let Yous Suppliers Do Some Work for You

If you can get and negotiate an early completion bonus, you’ll have suppliers and vendors wanting to get involved more with you.

If that’s the case you can ask the supplier to prepare submittals, shop drawings, or can manage your inventory. Also you can pay them less but more frequently. They can even go and help during site visits and pre-construction meetings and discussions.

### #4: Replace Your Problems

One of the most important tips you can use to save money with your suppliers is to have them engaged and producing the results you are expecting from them.

If your vendor or supplier is causing you delays, or is performing well under expected, replace them with other alternatives. Conduct progress meetings with your vendors or suppliers and let them know how they are performing for you, and get feedback from them also.

### #5: Construction Accountant

Do not use any type of accountant. Try to get an accountant with construction expertise that can know all tax codes written for the construction industry.Nowadays, there are many software and products that can help you keep the most accurate information for your invoices and finance. A good accounting firm or department is vital to a healthy negotiation with your suppliers.

### #6: Surety Credit

Your bonding agent must be able to understand the way your payments are being handled. This is very important if you want to establish an aggressive method of paying vendors and suppliers. An aggressive payment method for a supplier can lead to an increase of your surety bond or at least your surety agency will look at you better over similar competitors or construction companies. Improving your company’s financial strength may help you obtain a lower bonding rate.

A good relationship with your surety agent can save you money, so be sure to supply current, accurate, user-friendly financial information when purchasing, acquiring or leasing material and equipment from suppliers and vendors for your construction project.

Article By Juan Rodriguez

• ## Download a bar bending schedule of Box Culvert

Bar bending schedule (or schedule of bars) refers to a list of reinforcement bars, vis-à-vis, a specified RCC work item, and is provided in a tabular form for trouble-free visual reference.

Bar bending schedule comprises of detailed reinforcement cutting and bending length. If bar bending schedule is utilised together with reinforcement detailed drawing, the construction quality gets better and cost & time is saved significantly for developing concrete construction works.

Get the detailed information on reinforcement cutting and bending length through bar bending schedule. If bar bending schedule is utilised with along with reinforcement detailed drawing, the quality of construction is enhanced, cost and time is saved significantly for concrete construction works.

The bar bending schedule contains all the required particulars of bars ranging from diameter, shape of bending, length of each bent and straight portions, angles of bending, total length of each bar, and number of each type of bar.

a bar bending schedule of Box Culvert Excel Sheet DOWNLOAD

• ## Download Excel Sheet for Design of Stair Case with Central Stringer Beam

Reinforced concrete is considered as the most effective construction materials among all the materials mentioned in the image for building up the stairs.

The reinforced concrete offers the following benefits :-

They contain necessary fire resistance capabilities in large part

They are long-lasting, durable, attractive in appearance as well as simply rendered non-slippery.

They are designed for superior widths, longer spans and any height.

They can take shape in any preferred form to match the need of the architect.

They can be easily cleaned.

The cost of maintenance is very nominal.

They can be pre-cast or cast-in-situ. y p

To modify their look, R.C.C. stairs can be enclosed/finished by thin slabs of stone, marble tiles or terrazzo.

DOWNLOAD

• ## Concrete Mix – Download Spreadsheet to Estimate Quantities of cement, sand, stone

To make concrete there are four basic materials you need: portland cement, sand, aggregate (stone), and water. The ratio of aggregate to sand to cement is an important factor in determining the compressive strength of the concrete mixture.

The mixing process is the fact that the better you mix the concrete, the stronger it will be.

Under mixing the concrete can result in pockets where the cement and aggregates have not mixed together completely and this will cause weak points in your finished product. In a worst case scenario you can end up with an entire section of concrete that does not set up at all and remains wet.

This concrete mix design spreadsheet helps you to calculate concrete quatity easily that is based on excel program.

• ## Design of Combined Footing PDF & Spreadsheet Download

A combined footing is a long footing supporting two or more columns in (typically two) one row. A combined footing is a rectangular or trapezoidal shaped footing.

The function of a footing foundation is to transmit the load form the structure to the underlying soil. The choice of suitable type of footing depends on the depth at which the bearing strata lies, the soil condition and the type of superstructure.

Summary of combined footing design is shown in the following steps.

1. Select a trial footing depth.

2. Establish the required base area of the footing: Uniform soil pressure is achieved by making the resultant of the service column loads coincide with the centroid of the footing base.

3. Evaluate the net factored soil pressure.

4. Check footing thickness for punching shear.5. Draw S.F.D and B.M.D for footing:

5. Draw S.F.D and B.M.D for footing:

The shear force and bending moment diagrams for the footing are to be drawn, considering the footing as an inverted beam subjected to distributed load. Column loads may be considered as concentrated loads to simplify the analysis.

6. Check footing thickness for beam shear.

Beam shear capacity is checked against critical factored shear evaluated from S.F.D. Depth of footing may be increased to satisfy beam shear requirement.

7. Compute the area of flexural reinforcement:

Flexural reinforcement required in the longitudinal direction is evaluated. Furthermore, the areas of flexural reinforcement under columns in the transverse direction are computed. In computing this reinforcement, it will be assumed that each column load is uniformly distributed over a band centered on the column and having a width extending a distance d/2 from its faces. This area of reinforcement is to be uniformly distributed across the band width (C2+d), and the rest of the footing is to be provided with shrinkage and temperature reinforcement.

8. Check bearing strength of column and footing concrete.

9. Check for anchorage of the reinforcement.

10. Prepare neat design drawings showing footing dimensions and provided reinforcement.

Download Design of Combined Footings Spreadsheet HERE

Download Design of Combined Footings PDF HERE

• ## Project Manager Responsibilities

A project manager is a person who has the overall responsibility for the success of projects. Below is responsibilities list for a project manager.

Manage the project taking into account integration across all areas.

Engage with stakeholders.

Develop Project Plan.

Direct project resources.

Monitor and manage the project schedule.

Monitor and manage the project budget.

Monitor and manage the project risk.

Deal with operational issues.

Organize steering committee meetings, including ensuring that minutes will be taken.

Report to the steering committee, raising strategic issues.

Prepare Project Status Reports and Project Change Requests for the steering committee.

Ensure project meets requirements and objectives .

Manage project team members.

Negotiate and resolve issues as they arise across areas of the project and where they impact on other activities, systems and projects.

Look after the interests of the project team.

Organize and chair project reference group meetings, as appropriate.

Communicate project status to project sponsor, all team members, and other relevant stakeholders and involved parties .

Maintain project documentation.

Additional important remarks, in order to be successful, the project manager must be given support and authority by senior management.

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