A column is a very important component in a structure. It is like the legs on which a structure stands. It is designed to resist axial and lateral forces and transfer them safely to the footings in the ground.
Columns support floors in a structure. Slabs and beams transfer the stresses to the columns. So, it is important to design strong columns.
The basis of classification of columns and different types of reinforcement required for a certain type of column.
A column may be classified based on different criteria such as:
1. Based on shape
2. Based on the slenderness ratio
The ratio of the effective length of a column to the least radius of gyration of its cross section is called the slenderness ratio.
- Short RCC column, =< 10
- Long RCC column, > 10
- Short Steel column, =<50
- Intermediate Steel column >50 & <200
- Long Steel column >200
3. Based on the type of loading
- Axially loaded column
- A column subjected to axial load and unaxial bending
- A column subjected to axial load and biaxial bending
4. Based on the pattern of lateral reinforcement
- Tied RCC columns
- Spiral RCC columns